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side view pregnant businesswoman with presentation whiteboard Prevalence Ratio Of Anemic Pregnant Women With Respect To Their Maternal Age, Menstruation Periods, Trimesters, Gravidity and Routine Diet

Prevalence Ratio Of Anemic Pregnant Women With Respect To Their Maternal Age, Menstruation Periods, Trimesters, Gravidity and Routine Diet

Introduction :

Anemia is the abnormal condition of the body which is caused due
to reduction in number of erythrocytes in the body. There are lots of definitions of
Anemia but broad definition is “an absolute decrease in red blood cell mass”.
Anemia may cause due to blood loss, decreased erythrocyte production and
increased destruction of erythrocyte. Erythrocytes are also known as Red Blood
Cells having lifespan of 120 days. Erythrocytes are made up of proteins known as
Hemoglobin which carries oxygen from the lungs to each body part and carries
carbon dioxide from each part of the body to lungs. During pregnancy woman’sred
blood cells mass should be normal but blood volume increases because hemoglobin
and hematocrit are diluted and thus decreases. Another example of Anemia in
pregnant women would be excessive bleeding. Anemia is classified into three
categories (mild to severe) each has its value of estimation. As per WHO guidelines
in pregnancy (>11.0 g/dl) Hb% is considered as Normal, (>10.0 – 10.9 g/dl) Hb% is
considered as Mild Anemia, (>7.0 – 9.9 g/dl) Hb% is considered as Moderate
Anemia and (<7.0 g/dl) Hb% is considered as Severe Anemia.

Methodology:

A retrospective Cohort study was conducted in Gynea OPD of
Civil LUMHS Hospital Hyderabad. Study was conduted from 15 January 2020 to 15
February 2020. In that period 101 Pregnant Women took participation and they
were in 1st, 2nd and 3rd Trimesters of Pregnancy. Women with the history of
Chronic Disease, Miscarriages, Twin Pregnancies were also included in this study.
Data was collected with the help of an interview based Questionnaire consisted of
different variables such as Socio-demographic Status, Anthropometric
Measurements, Physical Activity, Hematological Parameters, Gravidity Status,
Dietary Factors and Diagnosis of Anemia with Risk Factors during Pregnancy.
Collected data was statistically analyzed by using Microsoft Excel Software. Blood
samples were collected through venipuncture from Median Cubital Vein and stored
in EDTA (purple top tube) and then sent for Diagnosis of Anemia by CBC (complete
blood count) Test. All CBC tests were performed in Civil LUMHS Hospital Laboratory
by using Sysmex XP 300 (fully automated hematology analyzer).

Anemia During Pregnancy

Results :

A total number of 101 pregnant women were participated in this study,
From them 59 were Anemic (25 mild, 29 moderate and 5 severe) while 42 were
Non-Anemic. According to the Research the Ratio of Anemia was greater in
pregnant women of Urban areas as compared to pregnant women of Rural areas.

Ratio of Anemia
Ratio of Anemia in Women
Anemia in Women
tabel 4 Prevalence Ratio Of Anemic Pregnant Women With Respect To Their Maternal Age, Menstruation Periods, Trimesters, Gravidity and Routine Diet

Discussion:

Prevalence of maternal anemia, etiology and severity among
different populations, prevalence varies because of differences in socio-economic
conditions, different life style and health seaking behaviour. Among the population
of Hyderabad consumption of diet may varies because of low economic status. The
habits of eating batel nuts and edible clay leads to more Anemic then other factors.
World wide the most common cause of anemia is the Nutritional deficiency. It
occurs due to inadequate intake of iron supplements, Folic acid and other vitamins.
It affects the development of organ, growth of body and resistance to infections.
IDA (iron deficiency anemia) is also a form of nutritional anemia which is distributed
universally; the most affected population groups are pregnant women and
malnourished mothers. In this study the prevalence of nutritional anemia was 42%
among the pregnant women of Hyderabad district (Rural and Urban areas). The
mean Hb% among Pregnant women was 10.5 g/dl with standard deviation of +/-1.
Our study further revealed that anemia was most commonly recorded in between
the age of 17 to 22. In many studies it was found that the anemia is a common
problem in Pregnant women at different age groups due to lack of awareness of
nutrition. Anemia not only occurs due to poor-diet but it also may happen due to
blood loss either by miscarriage or by menstruation periods. Therefore further
studies are recommended to identify this individual risk factor for anemia. It is our
recommendation that nutritional knowledge and awareness among pregnant
woman’s and health care providers must spread widely.

Conclusion:

Anemia is the most leading cause to Death globally, Anemic
pregnant woman’s have LBW (low birth weight) babies and preterm birth. The
results of this study suggests that during pregnancy consumption of batel nuts and
edible clay are common leading causes towards Anemia. Diet including meat, leafy
vegetables, non-leafy vegetables, cereals, dairy products and drinking clean water
boosts cell production inside pregnant women and featus may remain healthy
during pregnancy

This Article is Published by Namra Memon

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