Spread Of Malaria In Malaria District During Massive Monsoon Flooding :
Overview: Malaria is an acute febrile illness caused by Plasmodium Parasites, which are spread to people through the bites of infected Female Anopheles Mosquitoes. The mosquito bite introduces the parasites from the mosquito’s saliva in to a person’s blood. The parasites travel to the liver where they mature and reproduce. There are five parasite species that cause malaria in humans i.e. Plasmodium Vivax, Plasmodium Falciparum, Plasmodium Ovule, Plasmodium Malaria and Plasmodium Knowlesi. Two of these species P. Vivax and P. Falciparum are common in Pakistan and pose the greatest threat. P. Vivax is the most dominant malaria parasite and P. Falciparum is the deadliest malaria parasite. Health Officials have warned of large-scale outbreaks of disease in Pakistan after severe flooding displaced millions of people. A rise in cases of malaria has been reported after month of heavy rains left people stranded and without access to clean water.
Data Collection: Our prospective observational study was done at Malaria Health Services Pvt Ltd during massive monsoon flooding in the month of August 2022. We recruited all patients with symptoms of malaria such as fever, vomiting, headache, tiredness and muscular pain etc. Diagnosis of malaria was made on the basis of careful history and complete clinical examination. Diagnosis was confirmed by performing rapid antigen testing i.e. immuno-chromatographic malaria parasite test (ICT MP) and or identification of malaria parasite and it’s species on thick and thin Peripheral Blood Smear stained with Leishman Stain. During one month period which constituted 300 number of patients, among them malaria was diagnosed in 125 patients. From them 99 patients were diagnosed with P. Vivax, 25 patients were diagnosed with P. Falciparum and only 1 patient was diagnosed with both P. Vivax and P. Falciparum (malaria mixed infection). Once the diagnosis of malaria made, investigations were performed (Complete Blood Count, Estimated Sedimentation Rate, Liver Function Test and Serum Electrolyte) to further evaluate the patients for malaria related complications.
What is most at risk of getting very sick and dying from malaria?
Plasmodium Falciparum is the type of malaria that most often causes severe and life-threatening malaria, this parasite is very common in many countries. People who are heavily exposed to the bites of mosquitoes infected with Plasmodium Falciparum are most at risk of dying from malaria. People who have little or no immunity with malaria, such as young children or pregnant women or travelers coming from areas with no malaria, are most likely to become very sick and die. Poor people living in rural areas who lack access to health care are at greater risk for this disease.
What are the side effects of medications to treat malaria?
Anti malarial drugs can cause side effects. Be sure to tell your provider about other medicines you are taking, since anti malarial drugs can interfere with them. Depending on medication side effects may include Gastro-intestinal (GI) issues, headache, insomnia, seizures, anemia, psychological disorders and vision problems. To Book Your Appointment with Medical Specialist , Visit ilaj Mualja Website.
Is there a vaccine against malaria?
WHO recommends that in the context of comprehensive malaria control the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine be used for the prevention of Plasmodium Falciparum malaria in children living in regions with moderate to high transmission as defined by WHO. RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine should be provided in the schedule of 4 doses in children from 5 months of age for the reduction of malaria disease and burden.
How is Malaria controlled?
The main current measures are focused on the reduction of contact between mosquitoes and humans, the destruction of larvae by environmental management and the use of larvicides or mosquito larvae predators and destruction of adult mosquitoes by indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated bed nets.
This Article is Written by Medical Lab Technologist : Namra Memon